バスク語入門

バスク語は系統不明でかつ非常に古い言語であるらしい。バスク人自体が、遺伝子の系統解析によると、ケルト人などのインド・ヨーロピアン語族を操る民族の中央アジアからの移入より更に古い、原ヨーロッパ人の形質を残すそうな。

その特徴を一つ上げるとすれば能格である。インド・ヨーロピアン語族では通常、他動詞の目的語が格変化を受け、主語は変化しないのだが、能格言語では主語が能格に変化し、目的語は変化しないといった特徴を持つ。他の能格言語はと言えば、マヤ語、シュメール語といった尖ったラインナップらしい。グルジア語にも能格が有ったと記憶している。数字の読み方が20進法なのも共通している。何か関係が有ったのかもしれない。発音はバスク語の方が遥かに易しい。

ここ一週間ほど、寝る前の少しの時間でバスク語本を読んでいる。白水社の『バスク語のしくみ』は表題のとおり、寝ながら読むのにふさわしい、易しいゴガクショであった。上に載せた『バスク語入門』は非常に簡潔な文法解説に加えてバスク語史 や方言、文化や歴史まで総括的にバスク語を知ることができる、日本語で書かれた数少ない書の一つであろう(但し、半世紀近く前の情報である)。絶版になって久しい、古い本である。古書通販は状態がわからないので2冊買った。

バスク語に関して、日本語環境ではこの先の参考書がせいぜい白水社のニューエクスプレスシリーズくらいであり、もう少しキチンと知りたい場合は英語かスペイン語に頼る必要がある。こういう時に『世界のことば、辞書の辞典』は参考になる。

バスクに関してはもう一冊、司馬遼太郎『街道をゆく〈22〉南蛮のみち 1』が面白い。これ一冊丸々がバスクに関係するが、焦点は二人のバスク人、カンドウ神父とフランシスコ・シャビエル(Xavier)である。ザビエルとは読まない。

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